Photovoltaic PlantThe photovoltaic plant is one of the facilities that uses solar energy, booming that exists today and that practically all of us already know of its existence. Let's see how they work and the elements that make up these photovoltaic solar power plants.
What is a solar photovoltaic plant?
A photovoltaic plant is responsible for generating electricity continuously for a given location. When we refer to a plant is everything that makes it up to achieve the ultimate goal, as in this case electricity. To achieve this, it must carry out a series of transformations, from the moment the sunlight is captured until the energy generated is fed into the grid.
Operation of a photovoltaic plantPhotovoltaic installations are made up of solar panels that capture the sun's rays and, through their photovoltaic cells, convert them into alternating current electrical energy using elements such as the inverter and transformer. After this transformation, the energy is fed into the power grid via high-voltage lines, which then reach the supply areas.
Components of a photovoltaic power plant
A photovoltaic plant is made up of a series of components that working together obtain as a final product, the transformation of solar energy into electricity. Let's see a little more about them:
The photovoltaic cells of the solar panels.
These cells are responsible for taking solar energy and transforming it into electricity through the photovoltaic effect. Thanks to this phenomenon, direct current is obtained, which is transported through the wiring to the DC cabinets.
The panels can be connected in series or parallel, although it is more common for these plants to be in series to achieve a higher voltage to be fed into the solar inverter.
Direct current wiring
It is in charge of transporting the current generated by the panels to the different cabinets, as well as from the cabinets themselves to the inverter. This wiring consists of two cables, one for the positive pole and the other for the negative pole.
DC cabinet or box
This is responsible for receiving the electricity generated by the photovoltaic cells through the wiring. The cabinet includes a series of electrical protection elements, such as disconnecting switches, fuses, surge protectors, etc. These protections are extremely important so that in the event of a problem occurring, the electronic equipment, the wiring and the photovoltaic panels themselves are protected. In addition, they are used to perform maintenance tasks safely.
These cabinets usually join several lines of photovoltaic panels, concentrating the current and carrying it to the inverter by means of two cables (positive and negative).
It is the one in charge of converting direct current into alternating current. This alternating current is none other than the one we commonly use in our homes.
On the other hand, the transformation center is the place where the energy is adapted to the conditions of intensity and voltage suitable to be transported on high-voltage transmission lines.
The transmission lines
It is another component of the photovoltaic plant, since it consists of the lines that allow the electricity to be transported to the place of consumption.
Weather station equipment is responsible for collecting information on the environmental conditions of the photovoltaic plant. This can be, for example, data on ambient and PV module temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction or solar irradiation. These data are very important for evaluating the performance of a PV power plant, so care must be taken to ensure that they are functioning correctly.
The monitoring system, better known as SCADA, is responsible for collecting all the plant's operating data, in addition to meteorological information. Thanks to this system, at a quick glance it is possible to know whether everything is working properly and to detect the source of problems.
Switching from direct current to alternating current
Solar panels produce photovoltaic energy, which in turn generates direct current. However, since alternating current is needed in the home, it is for this reason that the direct current must be changed to alternating current.
First the solar energy transformed by the panels into direct current is sent to a direct current cabinet by means of wiring. Here the current is sent to be changed to alternating current through an inverter.
Subsequently, it is sent to a transformation center where it is adapted to the current and voltage conditions of the transmission lines to be finally used in the home or consumption site.
Some benefits of photovoltaic power plants
.There are many benefits that a photovoltaic plant can provide. Here we will present some of them so that you can learn more about them:
- Increases the value of a home.
- Inexhaustible energy source.
- It does not diminish the quality of air and soil.
- It does not produce noise pollution, since solar panels do not emit sounds.
- The panels have a useful life of between 20 and 30 years.
- Savings on electricity bills.
- Contributes to the fight against climate change.
- Teaches children and adolescents about energy and ecological technologies.
- Promotes rural development in unfavorable locations.
- Supply flexibility.
If there is one characteristic of the photovoltaic power plant that stands out, it is that it generates ecological electricity.
The generation of the year 2000 will enjoy the benefits of a photovoltaic plant, since they will be getting to know a new form of energy without harming the environment and making the most of what it has to offer. Let's hope that this type of technology will continue to grow in the future and leave aside other energies that are harmful to the environment.